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As part of the efforts of the American Dairy Science Association, Professor Hunziker and others published articles regarding: causes of tallowiness (an odor defect, distinct from rancidity, a taste defect); mottles (an aesthetic issue related to uneven color); introduced salts; the impact of creamery metals and liquids; and acidity measurement. These premium products, priced between butter and margarine, had a more characteristic butter flavor, but improved spreadability and the health benefits of margarine. The first margarine was beef tallow flavored with milk and worked like butter; vegetable margarine followed after the development of hydrogenated oils around 1900.  Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl. If you’ve heard of CLA (conjugated linolei…  An ancient method of butter making, still used today in parts of Africa and the Near East, involves a goat skin half filled with milk, and inflated with air before being sealed. (p37), Ghee is clarified butter that has been heated to around 120 °C (250 °F) after the water evaporated, turning the milk solids brown. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. milk. ", Beekes, Robert Stephen Paul, and Lucien Van Beek. Although shea butter is perhaps the most obvious oil to use in such fillings the basic premise can be used with any of the other exotic tropical oils (illipe, sal, kokum, mango kernel) to achieve an alternative filling fat composition. Chemically butter fat consists essentially of a mixture of triglycerides, particularly those derived from fatty acids, such as palmitic, oleic, myristic, and stearic acids. Some data indicate that fat percentage ranges from 2.5 to 6.5% and that of protein from 3.0 to 4.0%. Ghee is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as a typical trade article around the first century CE Arabian Sea, and Roman geographer Strabo describes it as a commodity of Arabia and Sudan.  Many other countries also have standards for minimum fat levels in dairy products. U.S. Grade A butter conforms to the following: Possesses a pleasing and desirable butter flavor. In the Mediterranean climate, unclarified butter spoils quickly, unlike cheese, so it is not a practical method of preserving the nutrients of milk. Butter 61% saturated 33% unsaturated 26 palmitic 16:0 28 oleic 18:1 n-9 12 myristic 14:0 3 palmitoleic 16:1 n-7 11 stearic 18:0 2 linoleic 18:2 n-6 4 lauric 12:0 3 butyric 4:0 3 capric 10:0 2 caproic 6:0 6% other (including 5% trans fatty acids) Chicken/ 29 %saturated 65 … Clarified butter is made by heating butter to its melting point and then allowing it to cool; after settling, the remaining components separate by density. Butter is shaped into a lamb either by hand or in a lamb-shaped mould. In the United States, margarine consumption overtook butter during the 1950s, and it is still the case today that more margarine than butter is eaten in the U.S. and the EU. One tablespoon of butter contains 7.5 grams of saturated fat, three grams of monounsaturated fat and .05 grams of omega-3 fatty acids. Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed almost entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats. Here's a summary of the different categories of fats, broken down into the good, the bad and the downright ugly. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands. The variabilities in composition that are found in different cocoa butters will be discussed in more detail in the section on cocoa butter composition. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. Each triglyceride contains three fatty acids. , In the United States, butter has traditionally been made into small, rectangular blocks by means of a pair of wooden butter paddles. The buttermilk is drained off; sometimes more buttermilk is removed by rinsing the grains with water. 62% saturated fat 2. In light of recognized scientific evidence, nutritional authorities consider all trans fats equally harmful for health and recommend that their consumption be reduced to trace amounts. Nutritionists often talk in terms of "good" fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and "bad" fats, like saturated and trans- fats. Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of milk or cream. All categories of butter are sold in both salted and unsalted forms. (p33), In antiquity, butter was used for fuel in lamps, as a substitute for oil. Until the 19th century, the vast majority of butter was made by hand, on farms. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Laboratory. Fat Composition Analysis Available data suggests that 100 g of whipped butter with salt contains: 25.38% of monounsaturated fat, 4.25% of polyunsaturated fat, and 57.97% of saturated fat out of a total lipid of 78.3 g. It also contains 3.41% of trans fats, and 225 mg of cholesterol. This practice continued until production was mechanized and butter was produced in less decorative stick form. Composition, Food and Nutritive Value of Butter: According to the PFA Rules (1976), table/creamery butter should contain not less than 80 per cent fat, not more than 1.5 per cent curd and not more than 3.0 per cent common salt. In addition to enhanced flavor, the addition of salt acts as a preservative. It is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, and used as an ingredient in baking, sauce making, pan frying, and other cooking procedures. The smoke point of butterfat is around 200 °C (400 °F), so clarified butter or ghee is better suited to frying. Trans fats may be also found in some industrially produced foods, such as shortenings obtained by hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Margarine has a minimum fat content of 80%, the same as butter, but unlike butter, reduced-fat varieties of margarine can also be labeled as margarine. Fats vary widely in complexity; some contain only a few component acids, and at the other extreme more than 100 different fatty acids have been identified in butterfat, although many are present in only trace quantities. Butter also contains fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E. Butter should have a uniform colour, be dense and taste clean. 4% polyunsaturated fat 4. A play by the Greek comic poet Anaxandrides refers to Thracians as boutyrophagoi, "butter-eaters". 4% polyunsaturated fat 4. The resulting butterfat is then poured off from the mixture of water and casein proteins that settle to the bottom. , Different varieties are found around the world. U.S. Grade A butter conforms to the following: Possesses a pleasing and desirable butter flavor. Butter and margarine are two fats commonly used in food preparation – from every day cooking methods like frying or roasting; to baking cakes, biscuits and other desserts; even ice cream. The variation in fat percentage may be due to genetics in beef cattle. In the U.S., there are federal standards for butterfat content of dairy products. The ancient Greeks and Romans seemed to have considered butter a food fit more for the northern barbarians. In addition to containing monounsaturated fats, many of the vegetable oils used in vegan butter products are high in polyunsaturated fats — specifically omega-6 fatty acids. Bread and butter became common fare among the middle class and the English, in particular, gained a reputation for their liberal use of melted butter as a sauce with meat and vegetables.  After the fall of Rome and through much of the Middle Ages, butter was a common food across most of Europe—but had a low reputation, and so was consumed principally by peasants. One tablespoon of butter contains 7.5 grams of saturated fat, three grams of monounsaturated fat and .05 grams of omega-3 fatty acids. As a concentrated source of milk … Until now, an addition of 5-10% of fats other than cocoa butter in chocolate is allowed in several Member States of the European Union (Denmark, UK, Ireland, Sweden, Portugal, Finland, Austria). These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments.  Today, butter presses remain in use for decorative purposes. The remainder consists of … The density of butter is 911 grams per litre (0.950 lb per US pint). Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed almost entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter; butters with many crystals are harder than butters dominated by free fats. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. The U.S. grade of butter is determined by first the flavor characteristics and then the characteristics of body, color, and salt content. May possess feed flavor to a definite degree. Either granular salt or a strong brine are added to salted butter during processing. Total fat: 11 grams; Saturated fat: 3.5 grams; Monounsaturated fat: 5 grams; Polyunsaturated fat: 2.5 grams; Sodium: 120 mg Butter for commercial and industrial use is packaged in plastic buckets, tubs, or drums, in quantities and units suited to the local market.  They are also cheaper than "sweet" cream and butter. The "butter compartment" found in many refrigerators may be one of the warmer sections inside, but it still leaves butter quite hard. The water acts as a seal to keep the butter fresh, and also keeps the butter from overheating in hot temperatures. The fatty acid composition of butterfat varies according to the producing animal’s diet. AMF is typically packed in 200-litre drums nitrogen (N2) headspace, and can be stored for several months at +4°C. Butter is packed into the lid. Fat Composition Analysis. Fat composition; Saturated fats; Total saturated: 57–64%: stearic acid (24–37%), palmitic acid (24–30%), myristic acid, (0–4%), arachidic acid (1%), lauric acid (0–1%) Unsaturated fats; Total unsaturated: 36–43%: Monounsaturated: 29–43%: oleic acid (29–38%), palmitoleic acid (0–2%) Polyunsaturated: 0–5%: linoleic acid (0–4%), α-Linolenic acid (0–1%) These remain softer at colder temperatures and are therefore easier to use directly out of refrigeration. Butterfat triglycerides contain the following amounts of fatty acids (by mass fraction): Beef fat 37% saturated 61% unsaturated wt. During fermentation, the cream naturally sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. 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